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The Vitamin D Receptor

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a protein that is activated by calciferol. It is involved with maintaining the mineral equilibrium in the body and causing growth and hair production. It also treats adipose tissues.

VDRs happen to be expressed in the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial skin cells, and many the immune system cell types. They are considered to regulate the intestinal ingestion of calcium, and to mediate some of the associated with vitamin D in bone repair. Also, they are thought to play an important part in metabolism.

VDR is found in a variety of areas, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they can be most widely depicted in the kidneys and bone fragments.

The VDR is phosphorylated upon serine elements by a variety of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect for these kinases in VDR can be ligand structured. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by PKC reduced VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Studies have shown that VDRs exist in a subset of glial cells, especially in oligodendrocytes in white subject. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been discovered in a number of glial cell lines, no information has been shown that the occurrence of VDR in glia is a cause of increased likelihood of tumorigenesis.

Additionally , VDR is apparently present in a subset of neurons. In fact , nuclear discoloration has been proven in individual cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein is found in human main glioblastoma skin cells. In contrast, a small recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.

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